Jupiter (mythology) – Wikipedia

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  1. ^Saturni filius, frg. 2 in the edition of Baehrens .
  2. ^Pleins, J. David (2010). When the great abyss opened : classic and contemporary readings of Noah’s flood ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-973363-7.
  3. ^

    West, M.L. (1966) Hesiod Theogony: 18-31; Kirk, G.S. (1970) Myth: Its meaning and function in ancient and other cultures: 214-220 Berkeley and Los Angeles; with Zeus being the Greek equivalent of Jupiter.

  4. a b
    Robert Schilling, “Rome,” pp. 44 and 63,
    both in (1981, 1992) Roman and European Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, 1992, transl. from the 1981 French edition;
    Giuliano Bonfante and The Etruscan Language: An Introduction, Manchester University Press rev. ed., pp. 24, 84, 85, 219, 225;
    Nancy Thomson de Grummond, (2006), Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, pp. 19, 53–58 et passim;
    , (2012), Divining the Etruscan World: The Brontoscopic Calendar and Religious Practice Cambridge University Press, p. 62.Massimo Pallottino, “Etruscan Daemonology,” p. 41, andRobert Schilling, “Rome,” pp. 44 and 63,both in (1981, 1992), University of Chicago Press, 1992, transl. from the 1981 French edition;Giuliano Bonfante and Larissa Bonfante, (1983, 2003), Manchester University Press rev. ed., pp. 24, 84, 85, 219, 225;Nancy Thomson de Grummond, (2006),, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, pp. 19, 53–58 Jean MacIntosh Turfa, (2012),Cambridge University Press, p. 62.
  5. ^Iūpiter is thought to be the historically older form and Iuppiter, to have arosen through the so-called littera-rule. Compare Weiss (2010). “Observations on the littera rule”

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    . Cornell Phonetics Lab. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. Archived from the original ( PDF ) on 17 October 2016.is thought to be the historically older form and, to have arosen through the so-called-rule. Compare

  6. ^

    Pliny Naturalis Historia X 16. A. Alföldi Zu den römischen Reiterscheiben in Germania 30 1952 p. 188 and n. 11 as cited by G. Dumézil La religion reomaine archaïque Paris 1974 2nd ed., It. tr. Milan 1977 (hereafter cited as ARR) p. 215 n. 58.

  7. ^

    Servius Ad Aeneidem II 374.

  8. ^Dictionary of Roman Coins, see e. g. reverse of ” Consecratio ” coin of Emperor Commodus và coin of Ptolemy V Epiphanes minted c. 204 – 180 BC .
  9. ^Diespiter should not be confused with Dis pater, but the two names do cause confusion even in some passages of ancient literature; P.T. Eden, Apocolocyntosis (Cambridge University Press, 1984, 2002), pp. 111–112.should not be confused withbut the two names do cause confusion even in some passages of ancient literature ; P.T. Eden, commentary on the ( Cambridge University Press, 1984, 2002 ), pp. 111 – 112 .
  10. ^Religions of Rome: A History (Cambridge University Press, 1998), vol. 1, p. 59.Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price,(Cambridge University Press, 1998), vol. 1, p. 59.
  11. ^Orlin, in Rüpke ( ed ), 58 .
  12. ^Les annales de Tite Live édition G. Budé vol. III 1942 Appendix V p. 153 and n. 3.Scheid, in Rüpke ( ed ), 263 – 271 ; G. Dumézil ARR It. tr. p. 181 citing Jean Bayet édition G. Budé vol. III 1942 Appendix V p. 153 and n. 3 .
  13. ^Eclogae X 27 “unde etiam triumphantes habent omnia insignia Iovis, sceptrum palmatamque togam” “wherefore also the triumphing commanders have all the insignia of Jupiter, the sceptre and the toga palmata'”. On the interpretation of the triumphal dress and of the triumph, Larissa Bonfante has offered an interpretation based on Etruscan documents in her article : “Roman Triumphs and Etruscan Kings: the Changing Face of the Triumph” in Journal of Roman Studies 60 1970 pp. 49–66 and tables I–VIII. triumphator as god or king in The Roman Triumph (Harvard University Press, 2007), pp. 226–232, and expresses skepticism.Dumézil 1977 p. 259 note 4 : cf. ServiusX 27 ” ” ” wherefore also the triumphing commanders have all the insignia of Jupiter, the sceptre and the toga palmata ‘ “. On the interpretation of the triumphal dress and of the triumph, Larissa Bonfante has offered an interpretation based on Etruscan documents in her article : ” Roman Triumphs and Etruscan Kings : the Changing Face of the Triumph ” in1970 pp. 49 – 66 and tables I – VIII. Mary Beard rehearses various views of theas god or king in ( Harvard University Press, 2007 ), pp. 226 – 232, and expresses skepticism .
  14. ^Dumézil 1977 citing Livy V 23, 6 and VI 17, 5 .
  15. ^G. Dumézil ARR above 1977 p. 177 .
  16. ^

    Dumézil 1977 p. citing Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities VI 90, 1; Festus s.v. p. 414 L 2nd.

  17. ^

    Gary Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War (University of California Press, 2005, 2006), p. 159 et passim.

  18. ^

    Matthew Dillon and Lynda Garland, “Religion in the Roman Republic,” in Ancient Rome: From the Early Republic to the Assassination of Julius Caesar (Routledge, 2005), pp. 127, 345.

  19. ^Attic Nights X 15.Most of the information about the Flamen Dialis is preserved by Aulus Gellius
  20. ^Saturnalia I 16, 8: flaminica quotiens tonitrua audisset feriata erat, donec placasset deos. The adjective feriatus, related to feriae, “holy days,” pertains to keeping a holiday, and hence means “idle, unemployed,” not performing one’s usual tasks.MacrobiusI 16, 8 : The adjective, related to, ” holy days, ” pertains to keeping a holiday, and hence means ” idle, unemployed, ” not performing one’s usual tasks .
  21. ^Livy I 20, 1 – 2 .
  22. ^

    Plutarch Quaestiones Romanae 113.

  23. ^Livy XXVII 8, 8 .
  24. ^item iurare Dialem fas numquam est; Imperium sine fine: T. Robert S. Broughton and the Roman Republic (Franz Steiner, 1996), p. 85; Francis X. Ryan, Rank and Participation in the Republican Senate (Franz Steiner, 1998), p. 165. The Rome’s Vestal Virgin: A Study of Rome’s Vestal Priestesses in the Late Republic and Early Empire (Routledge, 2006), p. 69.Aulus Gellius, 10.15.5 : Robert E.A. Palmer, ” The Deconstruction of Mommsen on Festus 462 / 464L, or the Hazards of Interpretation, ” in ( Franz Steiner, 1996 ), p. 85 ; Francis X. Ryan, ( Franz Steiner, 1998 ), p. 165. The Vestals and the Flamen Dialis were the only Roman citizens who could not be compelled to swear an oath ( Aulus Gellius 10.15.31 ) ; Robin Lorsch Wildfang, ( Routledge, 2006 ), p. 69 .
  25. ^Dumézil 1977 p. 147 .
  26. ^Religion un Kultus der Römer Munich 1912 p. 104 Hereafter cited as RK). Dionysius of Halicarnassus Rom. Ant. I 21, 1 ; Livy I 32, 4. See also ius gentium.G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 94 – 96, 169, 192, 502 – 504 ; G. WissowaMunich 1912 p. 104 Hereafter cited as RK ). Dionysius of HalicarnassusI 21, 1 ; Livy I 32, 4. See also
  27. ^Livy I 24, 8 .
  28. ^Livy I 32, 10 .
  29. ^Aeneis XII 206; Livy I 24, 3–8; IX 5, 3; XXX 43, 9; Festus p. 321 M.; Pliny NH XXII 5; Marcianus apud Digesta I 8, 8 par. 1; Servius Aeneis VIII 641; XII 120.G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 502 – 504 and 169. Wissowa ( 1912 ), p. 104, citing Paulus p. 92 M. ; ServiusXII 206 ; Livy I 24, 3 – 8 ; IX 5, 3 ; XXX 43, 9 ; Festus p. 321 M. ; Pliny NH XXII 5 ; Marcianus apudI 8, 8 par. 1 ; ServiusVIII 641 ; XII 120 .
  30. ^

    Varro in his Lingua Latina V writes of “Crustumerian secession” (“a secessione Crustumerina“).

  31. ^

    F. Vallocchia “Manio Valerio Massimo dittatore ed augure” in Diritto @ Storia 7 2008 (online).

  32. ^

    C. M. A. Rinolfi “Plebe, pontefice massimo, tribuni della plebe: a proposito di Livio 3.54.5–14” in Diritto @ Storia 5 2006 (online).

  33. ^Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Brill, 1980), p. 241, ascribing the view that there was no early Roman mythology to Hendrik Wagenvoort, “Characteristic Traits of Ancient Roman Religion,” in(Brill, 1980), p. 241, ascribing the view that there was no early Roman mythology to W.F. Otto and his school.
  34. ^De divinatione 2.85, as cited by R. Joy Littlewood, “Fortune,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford University Press, 2010), vol. 1, p. 212.Described by Cicero 2.85, as cited by R. Joy Littlewood, ” Fortune, ” in ( Oxford University Press, 2010 ), vol. 1, p. 212 .
  35. ^CIL 1.60, as cited by Littlewood, “Fortune,” p. 212.1.60, as cited by Littlewood, ” Fortune, ” p. 212 .
  36. ^

    J. Champeaux Fortuna. Le culte de la Fortune à Rome et dans le monde romain. I Fortuna dans la religion archaïque 1982 Rome: Publications de l’Ecole Française de Rome; as reviewed by John Scheid in Revue de l’ histoire des religions 1986 203 1: pp. 67–68 (Comptes rendus).

  37. ^William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), pp. 223–225.( London, 1908 ), pp. 223 – 225 .
  38. ^Dumézil 1977 pp. 51 – 52 and 197 .
  39. ^

    Ovid Fasti III, 284–392. Festus s.v. Mamuri Veturi p. 117 L as cited by Dumézil 1977 p. 197.

  40. ^Plutarch Numa 18 .
  41. ^Dumézil 1977 p. 175 citing Livy I 31 .
  42. ^

    R. Bloch Prodigi e divinazione nell’ antica Roma Roma 1973. Citing Livy I 34, 8–10.

  43. ^

    Macrobius Saturnalia III 6.

  44. ^

    Ovid Fasti I 587–588.

  45. ^

    Varro LL VI 16. Sacrifices to Jupiter are also broached in Macrobius Saturnalia III 10. The issue of the sacrificial victims proper to a god is one of the most vexed topics of Roman religion: cf. Gérard Capdeville “Substitution de victimes dans les sacrifices d’animaux à Rome” in MEFRA 83 2 1971 pp. 283–323. Also G. Dumézil “Quaestiunculae indo-italicae: 11. Iovi tauro verre ariete immolari non licet” in Revue d’études latins 39 1961 pp. 242–257.

  46. ^

    Beard et al, Vol 1, 32–36: the consecration made this a “Sacred Spring” (ver sacrum). The “contract” with Jupiter is exceptionally detailed. All due care would be taken of the animals, but any that died or were stolen before the scheduled sacrifice would count as if already sacrificed. Sacred animals were already assigned to the gods, who ought to protect their own property.

  47. ^G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 258 – 261 .
  48. ^

    Livy I 12; Dionysius of Halicarnassus II 59; Ovid Fasti VI 793; Cicero Catilinaria I 33.

  49. ^Iovi Statori c(ircenses) m(issus) XXIV.Based on the tradition of dedicating Jovian temples on the Ides. This assumption is supported by the calendar of Philocalus, which states on the Ides of January ( 13 ) :
  50. ^De Architectura (hereafter Vitruvius) III 1, 5.Wissowa (1912), p. 108 and n. 1 citing Vitruvius(hereafter Vitruvius) III 1, 5.
  51. ^CIL VI 438 .
  52. ^

    Ovid Fasti IV 621 and VI 650.

  53. ^collegium: Protocols of a sacerdotal Wissowa ( 1912 ), citing CIL VI 2004 – 2009 .
  54. ^Livy I 31 1 – 8 .
  55. ^Macrobius I 16. This identification has though been challenged by A. Pasqualini .
  56. ^Festus s. v. prisci Latini p. : ” the Latin towns that existed before the foundation of Rome ” .
  57. ^

    L. Schmitz in W. Smith Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities London 1875 s. v. Feriae p. 529.

  58. ^

    Cicero De Divinatione I 18; Dionysius Hal. AR IV 49, 3; Festus p. 212 L l. 30 f.; Scholiasta Bobiensis ad Ciceronis pro Plancio 23.

  59. ^

    Festus s.v. oscillantes p. 194 M; C. A. Lobeck Aglaophamus sive de theologiae mysticae Graecorum causis libri tres Königsberg 1829 p. 585.

  60. ^

    Cicero Pro Plancio 23; Varro LL VI 25; Pliny NH III 69.

  61. ^Pliny XXVII 45 .
  62. ^

    A. Alföldi Early Rome and the Latins Ann Arbor 1965 p. 33 n. 6 cited by O. de Cazanove above p. 252.

  63. ^Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities London 1875 s. v. Feriae p. 529: Niebuhr History of Rome II p. 35 citing Livy V 42, Plutarch Camillus 42.Wissowa (1912), p. 109; L. Schmitz inLondon 1875 s. v. Feriae p. 529: NiebuhrII p. 35 citing Livy V 42, Plutarch42.
  64. ^Livy XLII 21, 7 .
  65. ^Saturnalia I 15, 14 and 18, Iohannes Lydus De Mensibus III 7, Plutarch Quaestiones Romanae 24.Wissowa (1912), p. 101, citing MacrobiusI 15, 14 and 18, Iohannes LydusIII 7, Plutarch24.
  66. ^Feriae but Rome’s surviving calendars provide only fragmentary evidence for thebut Wissowa believes that every Ide was sacred to him .
  67. ^Fasti I 56 and 588; Macrobius Sat. I 15, 16.Wissowa (1912), p. 101, citing Varro LL V 47; Festus p. 290 Müller, Paulus p. 104; OvidI 56 and 588; MacrobiusI 15, 16.
  68. ^epula Iovis fell on 13 September and 13 November. The temple foundation and festival dates are 13 September for Jupiter Optimus Maximus, 13 April for Jupiter Victor, 13 June for Jupiter Invictus, and perhaps 13 January for Jupiter Stator.Wissowa (1912), p. 101: thefell on 13 September and 13 November. The temple foundation and festival dates are 13 September for Jupiter Optimus Maximus, 13 April for Jupiter Victor, 13 June for Jupiter Invictus, and perhaps 13 January for Jupiter Stator
  69. ^Cassius and Rutilius apud Macrobius I 16, 33. Tuditanus claimed they were instituted by Romulus and T. Tatius I 16, 32 .
  70. ^

    Macrobius I 16, 30: “…flaminica Iovi arietem solet immolare”; Dumézil ARR above p. 163 and n. 42, citing A. Kirsopp Michels The Calendar of the Roman Republic 1967 pp. 84–89.

  71. ^

    Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), p. 36.

  72. ^

    Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich 1912 pp. 101–102.

  73. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 174 .
  74. ^NH XVIII 289: “This festival day was established for the placation (i. e. averting) of storms”, “Hunc diem festum tempestatibus leniendis institutum“.Wissowa (1912), p. 101, citing PlinyXVIII 289: “This festival day was established for the placation (i. e. averting) of storms”, “”.
  75. ^Novum vetus vinum bibo, novo veteri morbo medeor.Wissowa (1912), pp. 101–102, citing Varro LL VI 21
  76. ^

    G. Dumézil, Fêtes romaines d’ été et d’ automne, Paris, 1975, pp. 97–108.

  77. ^Fasti IV 863 ff.In Roman legend Aeneas vowed all of that year’s wine of Latium to Dòng xe Jupiter before the battle with Mezentius : cf. G. Dumézil ARR above p. 173 ; OvidIV 863 ff .
  78. ^Fasti IV 863 ff., Paulus p. 65 and 374 M.Wissowa (1912), p. 102, citing Varro LL VI 16, Pliny NH XVIII 287, OvidIV 863 ff., Paulus p. 65 and 374 M.
  79. ^

    Gary Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War (University of California Press, 2005, 2006), p. 136. Populus originally meant not “the people,” but “army.”

  80. ^The Cults of the Roman Empire (Blackwell, 1992, 1996, 2001 printing, originally published 1989 in French), p. 75. Wissowa had already connected the Poplifugia to Jupiter: RK p. 102, citing Fasti Amiternini (feriae Iovis).Robert Turcan, ( Blackwell, 1992, 1996, 2001 printing, originally published 1989 in French ), p. 75. Wissowa had already connected theto Đời Yamaha Jupiter : RK p. 102, citing Cassius Dio XLVII 18 and the ) .
  81. ^

    Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome, p. 137.

  82. ^Hommage á Jean Bayet Bruxelles 1964 527 ff. See also Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine Paris 1957 p. 99; Rome et la Méditerranée occcidentale Paris 1969 pp. 204–208.; Paul-M. Martin “La fonction calendaire du roi de Rome et sa participation á certaines fêtes” in Annales de Bretagne et des pays de l’ Ouest 83 1976 2 pp. 239–244 part. p. 241; and Dario Sabbatucci La religione di Roma antica: dal calendario festivo all’ordine cosmico Milan 1988, as reviewed by Robert Turcan in Revue del’histoire des religions 206 1989 1 pp. 69–73 part. p. 71.André Magdelain ” Auspicia ad patres redeunt ” inBruxelles 1964 527 ff. See also Jean Bayet Paris 1957 p. 99 ; Jacques Heurgon Paris 1969 pp. 204 – 208. ; Paul-M. Martin ” La fonction calendaire du roi de Rome et sa participation á certaines fêtes ” in1976 2 pp. 239 – 244 part. p. 241 ; and Dario SabbatucciMilan 1988, as reviewed by Robert Turcan in1989 1 pp. 69 – 73 part. p. 71 .
  83. ^

    Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), p. 33, note 96.

  84. ^

    Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome, p. 192.

  85. ^Revue belge de philologie et d’ histoire 41 1963 1 pp. 25–62.Jean Gagé thinks the murder of Servius Tullius occurred on this date, as Tarquin the Proud and his wife Tullia would have taken advtange of the occasion to claim publicly that Servius has lost the favour of the gods (especially Fortuna): Jean Gagé “La mort de Servius Tullius et le char de Tullia” in1963 1 pp. 25–62.
  86. ^

    Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome, p. 132.

  87. ^

    Henri Le Bonniec Le culte de Cérès á Rome Paris 1958 p. 348, developing Jean Bayet Les annales de Tite Live (Titus Livius AUC libri qui supersunt) ed. G. Budé vol. III Paris 1942 Appendix V pp. 145–153.

  88. ^G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 485 – 486 .
  89. ^Römischen Forschungen II p. 42 ff. puts their founding on 366 BC at the establishment of the curule aedility. Cited by MommsenII p. 42 ff. puts their founding on 366 BC at the establishment of the curule aedility. Cited by Wissowa ( 1912 ), p. 111 .
  90. ^Livy I 35, 9 .
  91. ^De corona militis 13; Dionysius of Halicarnassus Antiq. Rom. VII 72. Marquardt Staatsverwaltung III 508.Wissowa (1912), pp. 111–112, citing Livy V 41, 2 ; Tertullian13; Dionysius of HalicarnassusVII 72. MarquardtIII 508.
  92. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 488 .
  93. ^

    G. Dumézil ARR above p. 181 citing Jean Bayet Les annales de Tite Live édition G. Budé vol. III 1942 Appendix V p. 153 and n. 3.

  94. ^Rǒmische Forschungen II 45, 4.Wissowa (1912), p. 112, citing Mommsen CIL I 2nd p. 329, 335;II 45, 4.
  95. ^

    In Verrem V 36 and Paulus s.v. ludi magni p. 122 M.

  96. ^Macrobius I 10, 11 .
  97. ^Quaest. Romanae 111.Wissowa (1912), p. 102, citing Gellius X 15, 12. 24; Paulus p. 87 M.; Pliny NH XVIII 119; Plutarch111.
  98. ^Most common in poetry, for its useful meter, and in the expression ” By Jove ! “
  99. ^Diovis and Diespiter, that is Dies Pater (Day Father); consequently the beings issued from him are named dei (gods), dius (god), diuum (day) hence the expressions sub diuo and Dius Fidius. This is why the temple of Dius Fidius has an opening in the roof, in order to allow the view of the diuum i. e. the caelum sky” tr. by J. Collart quoted by Y. Lehmann below; Paulus p. 71:”dium (the divinised sky), who denotes what is in the open air, outside the roof derives from the name of Iupiter, as well as Dialis, epithet of the flamen of Jupiter and dius that is applied to a hero descended from the race of Jupiter” and 87 M.Wissowa (1912), p. 100, citing Varro LL V 66: “The same peculiarity is revealed even better by the ancient name of Jupiter: since once he was namedand, that is(Day Father); consequently the beings issued from him are named(gods),(god),(day) hence the expressionsand. This is why the temple ofhas an opening in the roof, in order to allow the view of thei. e. thesky” tr. by J. Collart quoted by Y. Lehmann below; Paulus p. 71:”(the divinised sky), who denotes what is in the open air, outside the roof derives from the name of, as well as, epithet of the flamen of Jupiter andthat is applied to a hero descended from the race of Jupiter” and 87 M.
  100. ^

    CIL V 783: Iovi Diano from Aquileia.

  101. ^

    H. F. Müller in The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Ancient Greece and Rome s.v. Jupiter p. 161.

  102. ^

    Walter W. Skeat, A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1882, OUP 1984, p. 274

  103. ^Wissowa (1912), p. 108, citing Varro LL V 47 and Festus p. 290 M. s.v. Idulia.
  104. ^Ad Aeneidem VIII 641.Wissowa (1912), p. 108, citing Paulus p. 92 M.; ServiusVIII 641.
  105. ^Historiae III 25, 6.Wissowa (1912), p. 108, citing Festus p. 189 M. s.v. lapis; PolybiusIII 25, 6.
  106. a bG. Dumézil ARR above p. 169 .
  107. ^

    G. Dumezil ARR above p. 167. The carmen Saliare has: “cume tonas Leucesie prai ted tremonti/ quot tibi etinei deis cum tonarem”.

  108. ^G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 167 – 168 .
  109. ^Satyricon 44.G. Dumézil ARR above p. 168 citing Petronius 44 .
  110. ^

    Paulus s. v. p. 94 L 2nd; p. 2 M; Tertullian Apologeticum 40.

  111. ^

    Apuleius De Mundo 37; cf. Iuppiter Serenus CIL VI 431, 433,; XI 6312; Iuppiter Pluvialis CIL XI 324.

  112. ^

    Iuppiter Serenus has been recognized as an interpretatio of the Phocean god Ζευς Ούριος: F. Cenerini above p. 104 citing Giancarlo Susini “Iuppiter Serenus e altri dei” in Epigraphica 33 1971 pp. 175–177.

  113. ^Vitruvius I 2, 5 ; CIL I 2 nd p. 331 : sanctuary in the Campus Martius, dedicated on October 7 according to calendaries .
  114. ^CIL XII 1807 .
  115. ^CIL VI 377 ; III 821, 1596, 1677, 3593, 3594, 6342 cited by Wissowa ( 1912 ), p. 107 .
  116. ^Festus s. v. provorsum fulgur p. 229 M : ” … ; itaque Iovi Fulguri et Summano fit, quod diurna Iovis nocturna Summani fulgura habentur. ” as cited by Wissowa ( 1912 ), p. 107
  117. ^De Civitate Dei (herafter CD) VII 11. Pecunia is tentatively included in this group by Augustine ( herafter CD ) VII 11.is tentatively included in this group by Wissowa ( 1912 ), p. 105 n. 4. Cfr. Augustine CD VII 11 end and 12 .
  118. ^

    Frugifer CIL XII 336. Apuleius De Mundo 37.

  119. ^

    Cato De Agri Cultura 132; Paulus s. v. p. 51 M.

  120. ^CIL VI 3696 .
  121. ^Pecunia as protector and increaser of the flock.Wissowa (1912), p. 105 n. 4 understandsas protector and increaser of the flock.
  122. ^

    Bruno Migliorini s.v. Roma in Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti vol. XXIX p. 589; A. W. Schlegel Sämtliche Werke Leipzig 1847 XII p. 488; F. Kort Römische Geschichte Heidelberg 1843 p.32-3.

  123. ^

    N. G. L. Hammond & H. H. Scullard (Eds.) The Oxford Classical Dictionary Oxford 1970 s. v. p. 940.

  124. ^Servius IV 339 .
  125. ^

    Cato De Agri Cultura 132; Festus s. v. daps, dapalis, dapaticum pp. 177–178 L 2nd.

  126. ^

    Epulo CIL VI 3696.

  127. ^Livy I 12, 4 – 6 .
  128. ^Livy X 36, 11 .
  129. ^Dumézil above pp. 174 – 75 .
  130. ^

    Livy X 29, 12–17; nefando sacro, mixta hominum pecudumque caedes, “by an impious rite, a mixed slaughter of people and flock” 39, 16; 42, 6–7.

  131. ^Dario Sabbatucci above, as summarized in the review by Robert Turcan above p. 70 .
  132. ^

    Der Große Brockhaus, vol.9, Leipzig: Brockhaus 1931, p. 520

  133. ^

    cume tonas, Leucesie, prai ted tremonti…; G. Dumézil above p. It. tr. Milan 1977 p.168.

  134. ^

    Optimus is a superlative formed on ops [ability to help], the ancient form is optumus from opitumus, cf. the epithet Opitulus [The Helper].

  135. ^As cited by Dumézil ARR It tr. p. 177 .
  136. ^St. Augustine, The City of God, Books 1-10, Pg 218
  137. ^St. Augustine, The City of God, Books 1-10
  138. a bAugustine CD VII 11 .
  139. ^

    Georges Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque, Payot, Paris, 1974 2nd “Remarques preliminaires” X; It. tr. Milan 1977 p. 59ff.; citing Lucien Gerschel “Varron logicien” in Latomus 17 1958 pp. 65–72.

  140. ^

    Augustine De Civitate Dei IV 27; VI 5.

  141. ^

    J. Pépin “La théologie tripartite de Varron” Revue des études augustiniennes 2 1956 pp. 265-294. Dumézil has pointed out that even though Augustine may be correct in pointing out cases in which Varro presented under the civil theology category contents that may look to belong to mythic theology, nevertheless he preserved under this heading the lore and legends ancient Romans considered their own.

  142. ^Carmina: I 1, 25 manet sub Iove frigido venator; I 22, 20 quod latus mundi nebulae malusque Iuppiter urget; III 10, 7 ut glaciet nives puro numine Iuppiter.Wissowa (1912) cites three passages from Horace,: I 1, 25; I 22, 20; III 10, 7
  143. ^sacellum of Iuppiter Fagutalis (Varro De Lingua Latina V 152 (hereafter LL), Paulus p. 87 M., Pliny Naturalis historia XVI 37 (hereafter NH), CIL VI 452); on the Viminal is known a Iuppiter Viminius (Varro LL V 51, Festus p. 376); a Iuppiter Caelius on the Caelius (CIL VI 334); on the Quirinal the so called Capitolium Vetus (Martial V 22, 4; VII 73, 4). Outside Rome: Iuppiter Latiaris on Mons Albanus, Rendiconti della Regia Accademia dei Lincei III, 1887, fascicolo 2, p. 363 ff.) at Great Saint Bernard Pass, Iuppiter Vesuvius (CIL X 3806), Iuppiter Ciminus (CIL XI 2688); the Sabine Iuppiter Cacunus (CIL IX 4876, VI 371). Outside Italy Iuppiter Culminalis in Noricum and Pannonia (CIL III 3328, 4032, 4115, 5186; Supplememtum 10303, 11673 etc.) as cited by Mélanges de l’École française de Rome (hereafter MEFRA) 104 1992 1 pp. 94–95.On the Esquiline lies theof ( VarroV 152 ( hereafter LL ), Paulus p. 87 M., PlinyXVI 37 ( hereafter NH ), CIL VI 452 ) ; on the Viminal is known a ( Varro LL V 51, Festus p. 376 ) ; aon the Caelius ( CIL VI 334 ) ; on the Quirinal the so called ( Martial V 22, 4 ; VII 73, 4 ). Outside Rome : Iuppiter Latiaris on Iuppiter Appenninus ( Orelli 1220, CIL VIII 7961 and XI 5803 ) on the Umbrian Appennines, at Scheggia, on the Via Flaminia, Iuppiter Poeninus ( CIL 6865 ff., cfr. Bernabei, 1887, fascicolo 2, p. 363 ff. ) at Great Saint Bernard Pass, Iuppiter Vesuvius ( CIL X 3806 ), Iuppiter Ciminus ( CIL XI 2688 ) ; the Sabine Iuppiter Cacunus ( CIL IX 4876, VI 371 ). Outside Italy Iuppiter Culminalis in Noricum and Pannonia ( CIL III 3328, 4032, 4115, 5186 ; Supplememtum 10303, 11673 etc. ) as cited by Wissowa ( 1912 ), p. 102 and Francesca Cenerini ” Scritture di santuari extraurbani tra le Alpi e gli Appennini ” in ( hereafter1992 1 pp. 94 – 95 .
  144. ^G. Dumézil above It. tr. pp. 167 – 168 .
  145. ^Giorgione’s Tempest: Interpreting the Hidden Subject, University of Chicago Press, 1990, p. 62, summarising this scholarly interpretation: “The lightning is Jove.” cf Peter Humfrey, Painting in Renaissance Venice, Yale University Press, 1997, Salvatore Settis, Tempest, University of Chicago Press, 1990, p. 62, summarising this scholarly interpretation : ” The lightning is Jove. ” cf Peter Humfrey, , Yale University Press, 1997, p. 118 f. Archived năm nay – 04-24 at the Wayback Machine
  146. ^Dumézil above p. 239 ; It. Tr. p. 171 .
  147. ^

    Varro apud Augustine De Civitate Dei VII 9.

  148. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 274 ff .
  149. ^

    Dumézil ARR above p. 271 citing Ovid Fasti III 815–832.

  150. a b cDumézil, G. (1970) [1966]. Archaic Roman Religion. I. Translated by Krapp, Philip. U. Chicago. pp. 137–165, 172, 175.
  151. ^

    E. Montanari Mito e Storia nell’ annalistica romana delle origini Roma 1990 pp. 73 ff.; citing Cicero Pro Scauro 48: “pignus nostrae salutis atque imperii“; Servius Ad Aeneidem II 188, 16: “Illic imperium fore ubi et Palladium“; Festus s.v. p. 152 L.

  152. ^

    E. Montanari above citing M. Sordi “Lavinio, Roma e il Palladio” in CISA 8 1982 p. 74 ff.; W. Vollgraf “Le Palladium de Rome” in BAB 1938 pp. 34 ff.

  153. ^

    G. Dumezil “Déesses latines et mythes vediques. III Fortuna Primigenia” in Coll. Latomus 25 1956 pp. 71–78.

  154. ^

    Cicero De nat. Deor. II 85-86: “Is est locus saeptus religiose propter Iovis pueri, qui lactens cum Iunone in gremio sedens, mamma appetens, castissime colitur a matribus”: “This is an enclosed place for religious reasons because of Iupiter child, who is seated on the womb with Juno suckling, directed towards the breast, very chastely worshipped by mothers”.

  155. ^

    G. Dumezil Déesses latines et mythes vediques p. 96 ff.

  156. ^CIL XIV 2868 and 2862 ( mutile ) .
  157. ^

    R. Mowat “Inscription latine sur plaque de bronze acquise à Rome par par M. A. Dutuit” in Mem. de la Soc. nat. des Antiquités de France 5me Ser. 3 43 1882 p. 200: CIL XIV 2863: ORCEVIA NUMERI/ NATIONU CRATIA/ FORTUNA DIOVO FILEA/ PRIMOCENIA/ DONOM DEDI. Cited by G. Dumezil above p. 71 ff.

  158. ^

    G Dumezil Déesses latines et mythes vediques Bruxelles 1956 chapt. 3.

  159. ^

    Ṛg-Veda X 72, 4-5; G. Dumezil above and Mariages indo-européens pp. 311–312: “Of Aditi Daksa was born, and of Daksa Aditi, o Daksa, she who is your daughter”.

  160. ^

    G. Dumezil Déesses latines… p. 91 n.3.

  161. ^

    A. Brelich Tre variazioni romane sul tema delle origini. I. Roma e Preneste. Una polemica religiosa nell’Italia antica Pubbl. dell’Univ. di Roma 1955–1956.

  162. ^

    G. Dumézil ARR above p. 101 and 290. Discussed at length by Augustine, City of God VII 9 and 10. Also Ovid Fasti I 126.

  163. ^

    D. Briquel “Jupiter, Saturne et le Capitol” in Revue de l’histoire des religions 198 2. 1981 pp. 131–162; Varro V 42; Vergil Aeneis VIII 357-8; Dionysius Hal. I 34; Solinus I 12; Festus p. 322 L; Tertullian Apologeticum 10; Macrobius I 7, 27 and I 10, 4 citing a certain Mallius. See also Macrobius I 7, 3: the annalistic tradition attributed its foundation to king Tullus Hostilius. Studies by E. Gjerstad in Mélanges Albert Grenier Bruxelles 1962 pp. 757–762; Filippo Coarelli in La Parola del Passato 174 1977 p. 215 f.

  164. ^

    A. Pasqualini “Note sull’ubicazione del Latiar” in MEFRA 111 1999 2 p[. 784–785 citing M. Malavolta “I ludi delle feriae Latinae a Roma” in A. Pasqualini (ed.) Alba Longa. Mito storia archeologia. Atti dell’incontro di studio, Roma-Albano laziale 27-29 gennaio 1994 Roma 1996 pp. 257–273; Eusebius De laude Constantini 13, 7 = MPG XX col. 1403–1404; J. Rives “Human sacrifice among Pagans and Christians” in Journal of Roman Studies LXXXV 1995 pp. 65–85; Iustinus Apologeticum II 12, 4–5; G. Pucci “Saturno: il lato oscuro” in Lares LVIII 1992 p. 5-7.

  165. ^De Natura Deorum II 61.Wissowa (1912), pp. 100–101; G. Dumézil above p. 348; CiceroII 61.
  166. ^

    G. Dumezil La religion Romaine archaïque Paris, 1974; It. tr. Milan 1977 p.189.

  167. ^

    Roger D. Woodard Vedic and Indo-European Sacred Space Chicago Illinois Un. Press 2005 p. 189. The scholar thinks Dius Fidius is the Roman equivalent of Trita Apya, the companion of Indra in the slaying of Vrtra.

  168. a b

    G. Wissowa in Roschers Lexicon 1909 s.v. Semo Sancus col. 3654; Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich, 1912, p. 131 f.

  169. ^

    W. W. Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London, 1899, p. 139.

  170. ^

    O. Sacchi “Il trivaso del Quirinale” in Revue internationale de droit de l’Antiquité 2001 pp. 309–311, citing Nonius Marcellus s.v. rituis (L p. 494): Itaque domi rituis nostri, qui per dium Fidium iurare vult, prodire solet in compluvium., ‘thus according to our rites he who wishes to swear an oath by Dius Fidius he as a rule walks to the compluvium (an unroofed space within the house)’; Macrobius Saturnalia III 11, 5 on the use of the private mensa as an altar mentioned in the ius Papirianum; Granius Flaccus indigitamenta 8 (H. 109) on king Numa’s vow by which he asked for the divine punishment of perjury by all the gods.

  171. ^Genius a genendoMnemosyne 4. Suppl., 4, 1951, pp. 163–168. G. Dumézil ARR above p. 315, discussing G. Wissowa and K. Latte’ s opinions.Augustine CD VII 13, referencing also Quintus Valerius Soranus. H. Wagenvoort ” 4. Suppl., 4, 1951, pp. 163 – 168. G. Dumézil ARR above p. 315, discussing G. Wissowa and K. Latte ‘ s opinions .
  172. ^

    W. W. Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London, 1899, p. 189.

  173. ^

    Censorinus De Die Natali 3, 1.

  174. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 318 .
  175. ^

    Wissowa Kultus 1912 p. 243.

  176. ^

    CIL IX 3513 from the lex templi of the temple of Iuppiter Liber at Furfo, Samnium.

  177. ^

    Aulus Gellius Noctes Atticae VI 1, 6. Silius Italicus Punica XIII 400-413. Cited by G. Dumézil ARR above p. 435, referencing J. Hubeaux Les grands mythes de Rome Paris 1945 pp. 81–82 and J. Aymard “Scipion l’ Africain et les chiens du Capitol” in Revue d’études latins 31 1953 pp. 111–116.

  178. ^De Republica VI 13: = Somnium Scipionis.CiceroVI 13 : =
  179. ^

    Arnobius Adversus Nationes IV 40, 2.

  180. ^

    G. Capdeville “Les dieux de Martianus Capella” in Revue de l’histoire des religions 213 1996 3. p. 285.

  181. ^Macrobius I 10, 16 .
  182. ^

    E. and A. L. Prosdocimi in Etrennes M. Lejeune Paris 1978 pp. 199–207 identify him as an aspect of Jupiter. See also A. L. Prosdocimi “‘Etimologie di teonimi: Venilia, Summano, Vacuna” in Studi linguistici in onore di Vittore Pisani Milano 1969 pp. 777–802.

  183. ^

    G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 184–185 citing his Mitra Varuna, essai sur deux représentations indo-européennes de la souveraineté Paris 1940–1948.

  184. ^Wissowa (1912), p. 107, citing CIL VI 205; X 49 and 6423.
  185. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 185 .
  186. ^

    Ludwig Preller Rõmische Mythologie I Berlin 1881 pp. 195–197; E. Aust s. v. Iuppiter (Liber) in Roscher lexicon II column 661 f.

  187. ^De Liberi apud Romanos cultu capita duo Dissertation Marburg 1895 p. 40.Olivier de Cazanove cites Wissowa ( 1912 ), p. 120 and A. SchnegelsbergDissertation Marburg 1895 p. 40 .
  188. ^

    O. de Cazanove “Jupiter, Liber et le vin latin” in Revue de l’histoire des religions 205 1988 3 p. 247 n. 4.

  189. a bAugustine CD VII 21 .
  190. ^

    Inscriptions from the territory of the Frentani (Zvetaieff Sylloge inscriptionum Oscarum nr. 3); Vestini (CIL IX 3513; I 2nd 756 Furfo); Sabini (Jordan Analecta epigraphica latina p. 3 f.= CIL I 2nd 1838) and Campani (CIL X 3786 Iovi Liber(o) Capua).

  191. ^Fasti Arvales ad 1. September .
  192. ^Monumentum Ancyranum IV 7 ; CIL XI 657 Faventia ; XIV 2579 Tusculum .
  193. ^

    Fr. Bömer Untersuchungen über die Religion der Sklaven in Griechenland und Rom I Wiesbaden 1957 p. 127 f. cited by Olivier de Cazanove “Jupiter, Liber et le vin” in Revue de l’histoire des religions 205 1988 3 p. 248.

  194. ^O. de Cazanove above p. 248 ff .
  195. ^Ad nationes VII 31: “solum quod inferetur sacrum…” “only that which is spilt is considered sacred…”;also Cato De Agri Cultura CXXXII 2; CXXXIV 3; Servius IX 641; Isidore XX 2,7.Trebatius Testa apud ArnobiusVII 31: “” “only that which is spilt is considered sacred…”;also CatoCXXXII 2; CXXXIV 3; Servius IX 641; Isidore XX 2,7.
  196. ^

    Fr. Altheim Terra Mater Giessen 1931 p. 22 and n. 4 while acknowledging the obscurity of the etymology of this word proposed the derivation from sacerrima as bruma from brevissima; Onomata Latina et Graeca s.v.: novum vinum; Corpus Glossatorum Latinorum II p. 264: απαρχη γλεύκους.

  197. ^

    Columella De Re Rustica XII 18, 4 mentions a sacrifice to Liber and Libera immediately before.

  198. ^Paulus s. v. sacrima p. 423 L ; Festus p. 422 L ( mutile ) .
  199. ^

    Isidore Origines XX 3, 4; Enrico Monatanari “Funzione della sovranitá e feste del vino nella Roma repubblicana” in Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni 49 1983 pp. 242–262.

  200. ^

    G. Dumézil “Quaestiunculae indo-italicae” 14-16 in Revue d’ études latins XXXIX 1961 pp. 261–274.

  201. ^

    Henri Le Bonniec Le culte de Cérès à Rome Paris 1958 pp. 160–162.

  202. ^G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 331 – 332 .
  203. ^Augustine CD VII 3, 1 .
  204. ^

    “Liber et liberi” in Revue d’études latins 14 1936 pp. 52–58.

  205. ^…curatores Iovi Libertati” CIL XI 657 and “Iovi Obsequenti publice” CIL XI 658 from Iuppiter Impetrabilis” from Cremella sopra Rivista di studi italiani e latini 110 1976 pp. 178–182. The double presence of Jupiter and manumissio (legal ritual action by which slaves were freed) was practised in this sanctuary : Giancarlo Susini “San Pietro in Sylvis, santuario pagense e villaggio plebano nel Ravennate” in Mélanges offertes à G. Sanders Steenbrugge 1991 pp. 395–400. Cited in F. Cenerini above p. 103.” CIL XI 657 and ” ” CIL XI 658 from Bagnacavallo ; ” ” from Cremella sopra Monza published by G. Zecchini in1976 pp. 178 – 182. The double presence of Jupiter and Feronia at Bagnacavallo has led to speculation that the servile ( legal ritual action by which slaves were freed ) was practised in this sanctuary : Giancarlo Susini ” San Pietro in Sylvis, santuario pagense e villaggio plebano nel Ravennate ” inSteenbrugge 1991 pp. 395 – 400. Cited in F. Cenerini above p. 103 .
  206. ^

    G. Dumézil ARR It. tr. p. 188 n. 44; Kurt Latte Römische Religionsgeschichte Munich 1960 p. 81 and n. 3.; W. Warde Fowler The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic London 1899 pp. 121–122.

  207. ^

    G. Piccaluga “L’ anti-Iupiter” in Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni XXXIV 1963 p. 229-236; E. Gierstad “Veiovis, a pre-indoeuropean God in Rome?” in Opuscola Romana 9, 4 1973 pp. 35–42.

  208. ^Aulus Gellius V 12 .
  209. ^Iovi crescenti mentioned by Studien zur Geschichte der Weltkrisedes 3. Jhd. n.Chr. Darmstadt 1067 p. 112 f.D. Sabbatucci above as summarised by R. Turcan above p. 70 and pp. 72 – 73. On the aspect of making Yamaha Jupiter grow up Turcan cites the denarii struck by Manius Fonteius and Valerian the younger of the typementioned by A. Alföldi inDarmstadt 1067 p. 112 f .
  210. ^

    Ludwig Preller Römische Mythologie I p. 262 f.

  211. ^

    Ovid Fasti I 291–294.

  212. ^

    Ferruccio Bernini Ovidio. I Fasti (translation and commentary), III 429; Bologna 1983 (reprint).

  213. ^

    Vitruvius De Architectura IV 8, 4.

  214. ^

    Ovid above. Fasti Praenestini CIL I 2nd p. 231: Aescu]lapio Vediovi in insula.

  215. ^

    Fasti Praen.: Non. Mart. F(as)…]ovi artis Vediovis inter duos lucos; Ovid Fasti III 429–430.

  216. ^

    Ovid above V 721–722. XII Kal. Iun. NP Agonia (Esq. Caer. Ven. Maff.); Vediovi (Ven.).

  217. ^

    Wissowa on the grounds of Paulus’s glossa humanum sacrificium p. 91 L interprets “with a rite proper to a ceremony in honour of the deceased”. G. Piccaluga at n. 15 and 21 pp. 231-232 though remarks that Gellius does not state sacrificium humanum but only states…immolaturque ritu humano capra.

  218. ^Livy VIII 9, 6 .
  219. ^Gellius V 12, 12 .
  220. ^

    Gellius V 12. The Romans knew and offered a cult to other such deities: among them Febris, Tussis, Mefitis.

  221. ^

    G. Piccaluga “L’ anti-Juppiter” in Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni XXXIV 1963 p. 233-234 and notes 30, 31 citing Gellius V 12 and Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia XVI 216: “Non et simulacrum Veiovis in arce?“.

  222. ^Livy XXXI 21 .
  223. ^

    Ettore Pais CIL Supplementa Italica I addimenta al CIL V in Atti dei Lincei, Memorie V 1888 n. 1272: I O M IUR D(e) C(onscriptorum) S(ententia).

  224. ^

    CIL I 1105: C. Volcaci C. F Har. de stipe Iovi Iurario… onimentum.

  225. ^

    Ovid Fasti I 291–295.

  226. ^Livy XXXV 41 .
  227. ^

    Cfr. above: “Aeculapio Vediovi in insula“.

  228. ^

    Maurice Besnier “Jupiter Jurarius” in Mélanges d’archéologie et d’ histoire 18 1898 pp. 287–289.

  229. ^

    CIL XIV 2387 = ILS 2988 = ILLRP 270=CIL I 807: Vediovei patrei genteiles Iuliei leege Albana dicata.

  230. ^

    A. Pasqualini “Le basi documenatarie della leggenda di Alba Longa” Universita’ di Roma Torvergata 2012 online.

  231. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 408 .
  232. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 413. Livy XXVII 2, 10 – 12 .
  233. ^

    Dionysius of Halicarnassus Rom. Antiquities III 69, 5–6.

  234. ^Dionysius of Halicarnassus above III 69 ; Florus I 7, 9 .
  235. ^CIL XI 351 .
  236. ^

    Plutarch Numa 16.

  237. ^

    Ovid Fasti II 679.

  238. ^Augustine CD VII 7 .
  239. ^G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 186 – 187 .
  240. ^La relig. rom. arch. Paris 1974; It. tr. Milano 1977 pp. 185–186; C. W. Atkins “Latin ‘Iouiste’ et le vocabulaire religieux indoeuropéen” in Mélanges Benveniste Paris, 1975, pp. 527–535.Wissowa (1912), p. 135; G. DumezilParis 1974; It. tr. Milano 1977 pp. 185–186; C. W. Atkins “Latin ‘Iouiste’ et le vocabulaire religieux indoeuropéen” inParis, 1975, pp. 527–535.
  241. ^

    Piso apud Dionysius of Halicarnassus Rom. Antiquities IV 15, 5.

  242. ^G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 185 – 186 .
  243. ^Livy XXXV 36, 5 .
  244. ^

    Macrobius Saturnalia III 4, 8–9 citing Varro: “Per quos penitus spiramus”. Sabine Mac Cormack The Shadows of Poetry: Vergil in the Mind of Augustine University of California Press 1998 p. 77.

  245. ^G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 311 – 312 .
  246. ^

    Varro De Lingua Latina V 144; Plutarch Coriolanus XXIX 2; Macrobius Saturnalia III 4, 11; Servius Ad Aeneidem II 296: as cited by Dumézil ARR above p. 313.

  247. ^G. Dumézil ARR above p. 313 .
  248. ^

    Arnobius Adversus nationes III 40. Cf. also Lucan Pharsalia V 696; VII 705; VIII 21.

  249. ^

    Arnobius Adversus Nationes III 40, 3; Martianus Capella De Nuptiis I 41: “Senatores deorum qui Penates ferebantur Tonantis ipsius quorumque nomina, quoniam publicari secretum caeleste non pertulit, ex eo quod omnia pariter repromittunt, nomen eis consensione perficit”.

  250. ^

    Arnobius Adversus Nationes III 40 4; Macrobius Saturnalia III 4 9.

  251. ^

    Gérard Capdeville “Les dieux de Martianus Capella” in Revue de l’histoire des religions 213 1996 3 p. 285 citing Carl Olof Thulin Die Götter des Martianus Capella und der Bronzeleber von Piacenza (=RGVV 3. 1) Giessen 1906 pp. 38–39. On the topic see also A. L. Luschi “Cacu, Fauno e i venti’ in Studi Etruschi 57 1991 pp. 105–117.

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